Special features

Historic ranges and 22 reported sightings of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers since 1944

Possible sightings between 1950 and 2008
By Matt Mendenhall | Published: 12/19/2014



This map and article were first published in conjunction with our August 2005 issue. Updated for our February 2015 issue.

Ivory-billed Woodpeckers were last confirmed in 1944 in Louisiana and in 1986 in Cuba. Possible sightings by ornithologists, birders, and others in the years since are plotted on the map above and described in more detail below. Shades of green on the map show the Ivory-bill’s declining range.

1. Highway 29, Collier Co., Fla., about 1950

Observer: Ornithologist Allan Cruickshank, father of Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Notable: Today Highway 29 is the western boundary of Big Cypress National Preserve.

2. Chipola River, Calhoun Co., Fla., 1950-52

Observers: Whitney Eastman, vice president of General Mills, Muriel Kelso, Davis Crompton, and John Dennis. Notable: Crompton and Dennis had found Ivory-bills in Cuba in 1948 that Dennis photographed. In the Chipola River Swamp, conservationists, land owners, and government officials established a wildlife sanctuary, but after no additional sightings were reported, sanctuary status was discontinued in 1952.

3. South of Tallahassee, Wakulla Co., Florida, July 1952

Observer: Samuel A. Grimes, discoverer (in 1953) of the first known Cattle Egret nest in North America

4. Homosassa Springs, Florida, April 1955

Observer: John K. Terres, former Audubon Magazine editor and author of The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Notable: For fear of being scorned, Terres kept the sighting a secret for more than 30 years.

5. Altamaha River Basin, Georgia, 1958

Observer: Ornithologist and forest ecologist Herbert Stoddard, who devoted the final years of his life to a study of bird kills at a north Florida television tower. Notable: Stoddard reported seeing the bird from a distance of 50 yards while he was flying in a small plane.

6. Near Thomasville, Georgia, 1958

That same year, Stoddard also reported seeing a pair in beetle-killed spruce pine near Thomasville, Georgia.

7. West of Aucilla River, Jefferson Co., Florida, 1959

Observer: William Rhein

8. Neches River Swamp, Texas, 1966, 1968

Observers: Birder Olga Hooks Lloyd (April 1966), John Dennis (December 1966 and February 1968). Notable: Dennis claimed to have recorded the bird in 1968, but some questioned the recording’s authenticity. Today, acoustics experts at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology say it is an Ivory-bill recording. In 1974, Congress set aside 84,500 acres of east Texas as the Big Thicket National Preserve, partly due to the reported sightings.

9. Near Elgin Air Force Base, Florida, 1966

Observers: Birders Bedford P. Brown Jr. and Jeffrey R. Sanders. Notable: The men heard and then saw a pair of Ivory-bills scaling beetle-killed pines for 16 minutes.

10. Green Swamp area, Polk Co., Florida, 1967

Observer: Ornithologist David S. Lee, curator emeritus of birds, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences. Notable: After seeing a female Ivory-bill fly across a road 25 yards in front of him, Lee, who was then a student, returned to the swamp with his professor and discovered large slabs of bark removed from trees — typical of Ivory-bill feeding activity.

11. Northwest of Lake Okeechobee, Polk Co., Florida, 1967-69

Observers: Ivory-bill hunters H. Norton Agey and George M. Heinzmann reported seeing or hearing a bird on 11 occasions between 1967 and 1969. Notable: A feather found near a tree cavity was identified as an Ivory-bill’s innermost secondary.

12. Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana, 1971

Observer: Fielding Lewis, chairman of the Louisiana Boxing Commission. Notable: Lewis snapped two fuzzy photos of an Ivory-bill and sent the photos to Louisiana State University ornithologist George Lowery who showed them to fellow scientists at that year’s American Ornithologists’ Union meeting. The photos met with skepticism at the time, but today, prominent ornithologists accept them as legitimate. Birding Magazine published one of the photos in its December 2001 issue. Click here to download a PDF of the article.

13. Noxubee River, Mississippi and Alabama, March 1973

Observer: Ornithologist Jerome A. Jackson, author of In Search of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker and a June 2002 Birder’s World article, The Truth Is Out There.

14. Ogeechee River, 25 miles west of Savannah, Georgia, July 1973

Observers: Rev. C. Deming Gerow and his son, Jim. Notable: The Gerows, missionaries in Argentina, were bird banders and were familiar with Campephilus woodpeckers in South America.

15. Black Creek, DeSoto National Forest, Mississippi, 1978

Observers: Ornithologists Ronald Sauey, the late co-founder of the International Crane Foundation, and Charles Luthin, executive director of the Natural Resources Foundation of Wisconsin. Notable: Sauey heard a bird that “sounded every bit like the historic Ivory-bill recording of Allen and Kellogg.”

16. Pascagoula River, Mississippi, February 1982

Observer: Birder Mary Morris of Biloxi, Mississippi

17. Loxahatchee River in Jonathan Dickinson State Park, Florida, April 1985

Observer: Dennis G. Garratt. Notable: He watched the bird from 25 to 40 feet away for about 15 minutes.

18. Near Yazoo River, Mississippi, March 1987

Observers: Ivory-bill expert Jackson and then-graduate student Malcolm Hodges, currently the stewardship ecologist with the Nature Conservancy of Georgia Notable: A bird called in response to a tape the men played of an Ivory-bill call. It approached to within about 150 yards, then disappeared.

19. Ojito de Agua area, Cuba, March 1988

Observer: Jackson. Notable: He and other ornithologists were there to follow up on a confirmed sighting in the same area two years before. Ivory-bill call notes were heard on eight different days during the ’88 expedition.

20. Pearl River Swamp, Louisiana, April 1999

Observer: Turkey hunter David Kulivan. Notable: An intensive search of the swamp by ornithologists in 2002 found no evidence of Ivory-bills.

21. Cache River, Arkansas, February 2004

Observer: Gene Sparling. Notable: Later that month, Sparling led Tim Gallagher of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and photography professor Bobby Harrison along the Cache, and Gallagher and Harrison saw an Ivory-bill. Their sighting sparked a multi-year search that produced “no definitive evidence of a surviving Ivory-bill population.”

22. Choctawhatchee River, Florida, 2005-2008

Observers: Geoffrey Hill, professor and curator of birds at Auburn University, and former students and bird technicians Dan Mennill, Tyler Hicks, Brian Rolek, and Kyle Swiston. Notable: Hill, Hicks, and Rolek first encountered a bird about a month after the Arkansas sightings were announced, and they had numerous additional sightings until 2008. Hill wrote about his under-the-radar search in our February 2007 issue, in the book Ivorybill Hunters: The Search for Proof in a Flooded Wilderness, and on his blog.

Sources: Jackson, Jerome A., 2002, Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), in The Birds of North America, No. 711 (The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia); Jackson, Jerome A., 2004, In Search of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.); Gallagher, Tim, 2005, The Grail Bird: Hot on the Trail of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Houghton Mifflin Co., New York); Hill, Geoffrey, 2007, Ivorybill Hunters: The Search for Proof in a Flooded Wilderness (Oxford University Press, New York); and the Nature Conservancy.

Matt Mendenhall is the Managing Editor of BirdWatching magazine.

Read more about the Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Truth is out there
Jerome A. Jackson assesses David Kulivan’s 1999 report of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers in the Pearl River Swamp, Louisiana. June 2002.

Old friend found
Eyewitness accounts of sightings of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers from the Cache River, Arkansas. By Chris Niskanen, August 2005.

Now what?
What’s next for the Big Woods Conservation Partnership and the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. By Elliott Swarthout and Ron Rohrbaugh, August 2005.

First step
In the wake of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker rediscovery, a plea for conservation of the world’s other declining species. By George Fenwick, August 2005.

Old friend missing
Description, range, habits, and credible sightings of the Imperial Woodpecker. By Matt Mendenhall, December 2005.

Faith-based ornithology
Jerome A. Jackson argues that mistakes were made, putting support for future conservation at risk. By Chuck Hagner, February 2006.

The other guys
Geoffrey Hill describes his search for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker along the Choctawhatchee River in Florida. February 2007.

1 in 15,625
Teams of researchers calculate the odds of finding a living Ivory-bill today. By Matt Mendenhall, February 2012.

Ghost bird
Ten years after Ivory-bill fever swept the nation, Jerome A. Jackson assesses the hope, hype, and disappointment. February 2015.


  • Pingback: Ivory-billed Woodpecker: Gone or Just Forgotten? |TrailDirt.com()

  • Edward Galavage

    Although I would love to believe the ivory-billed is still alive. But most of the videos look like pileated woodpeckers. Most people see a large woodpecker and assume it is a ivory-billed. There are a lot of “sightings” but no actual evidence. Maybe when we find BIGFOOT we find the ivory-billed.

  • David Cree

    No mention was made of the sightings on Bruce Creek adjacent to the Choctawatcheee River by Dr. Geoffrey Hill and Brian Rolek of Auburn University. I persobally assisted in the follow up searches for the bird(s) in 2008 and while down in the FL panhandle met Mike Collins– a true rocket scientist at NASA’s Rocket Propulsion Test Complex on the Pearl River. It’s called the John C. Stennis Complex.

    The Pearl River has been Mike’s area of exploration for many years, since that is where
    some of the Ivorybills hangout and the Rocket Test Complex is there also where he works.

    See his entire Ivorybill historical reports at: fishcrow.com
    It makes for an incredible, fascinating read

    He has SEEN the bird 10 times. 9 on the Pearl once in FL.

    I talked with Mike for at least 2 hours the day we met down on Bruce Creek at least 6
    years ago. Believe me –after talking with this extremely intelligent Rocket Scientist,
    there was little doubt in my mind that this bird does indeed exist. Mike (who is not an Ornithologist) knows more about an Ivorybill than all the current Ornithologists rolled up into one.

    His knowledge of HOW the bird departs from a tree vs HOW a Pileated departs from a tree is amazing. He knows the ANGLE of the body of a bird (in relation to the vertical of the tree) perched on a tree….Ivorybill vs Pileated.

    He knows the number of wing beats per second… yada, yada…..

    He has learned all of this from his years of observation in the field, and personal
    study. When I met him he had just gotten a high definition Video Camera and tied it to his Kayak paddle, so that
    if and when a bird flew out in front of him, he could simply turn his paddle to record.

    Whether he has recorded on video conclusive proof—only he knows. Remember John Terres of Audubon, kept his sighting secret for over 25 years……

    MIke may be doing the same with video proof–I simply do not know….

    What I do know—the bird does indeed exist

    • Susan Lucas

      How do I report a sighting? I live in North Carolina and have heard of the Ivory Bill my entire life…my dad was a huge bird enthusiast and was so excited when the initial reports came out in the early 2000’s of sightings. I am fairly certain this is what I saw last weekend…much too big to be a piliated…stunning markings, white bill …I was within 2 feet of it so really go a good look at it and was in awe!

  • cinclodes

    Thanks for the kind words, David. I’m actually a mathematician, not a rocket scientist, but it’s true that I know more about the Ivory-billed Woodpecker than any ornithologist (not that that is saying much). I have read the literature (books, article, private letters), which is all that any scientist can do without observing a species, but I have also had ten sightings (including three that are supported by video evidence that is much better than any other evidence that has been obtained and has not been refuted). I don’t know why anyone would care what Jerome Jackson thinks. Look at his rhetoric — labeling the work of the most prominent ornithology lab in the world as “faith based science.” Jackson tried to find Ivory-billed Woodpeckers and failed. It seems strange that several of his possible sightings are listed in the article and, yet, there is no mention of numerous sightings in Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana that are supported by evidence and documented in three independent journal articles. If you want the facts, it would be better to listen to those who have spent years in the field and found Ivory-billed Woodpeckers, such as Geoff Hill, the only living ornithologist with a sighting. There is a great deal of wisdom in Geoff’s book. Or better yet, go to the following URL for a detailed discussion of data and the foolishness that has put the conservation of this species in dire jeopardy.


  • Pingback: Ivory-billed Woodpecker Sightings and Evidence 1944-2003: The Partially Hidden History | Project Coyote()

  • Retiredone

    You forgot about Collins seeing, hearing, filming one flying below him, making audio recordings, in the Pearl River bayou. He had at least ten sightings.
    Also one has to remember that I could possibility go out in Florida and see one. I could report the sighting, and be immediately told I had not seen one. Then the next day I go out see it again and take a picture with my sell phone. I would then be told that the picture is not good enough. I could go back out and take multiple clear pictures, with a digital SLR, with telephoto lens. Still be told that it is not an Ivory Billed. I could then go out and video one for 30 min. Will be told not one. I could then go and get a feather, and then be told the same. What is left to do, shoot or capture, proof but jail time.
    Now what does this prove? That if you are not so and so, ye shall not be believed.
    Why do I say that? Collins is not even mentioned in these sighting locations.

  • bret elmore

    I seen 2 of very cool at state park n ky few 2 days ago they put on a show i almost didnt want 2 leave


    No body listened to me in the 90’s when I saw the Ivory billed woodpecker they kept telling me it was extinct. I didn’t have a computer, but did have encyclopedias and could tell the difference. Well that extinct bird would pass through my property for several years always stopped on the same tree. I figured it was migrating. I just found out Now people are listening. Well those sightings if any one cares were during the 1990’s in Pearl River county MS in Ozona.